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(orchestral music)(plane zooming)- We tried again and again, to prevent this war.And for the sake of peace we've put upwith a lot of things happening,which ought not to have happened.But now we are at war, and we are going to make war,and persevere in making war until the other sidehave had enough of it.We have been agreeably surprised that 10 weekshave been allotted to us to get into fighting trim.We are in a very different positionfrom that we were in 10 weeks ago.We are far stronger than we were 10 weeks ago.We are far better prepared to endure the worst maliceof Hitler and his Huns than we wereat the beginning of September.We're, growing in numbers and improving in trainingevery day.I shall not attempt to prophecise whetherthe frenzy of a cornered maniac will drive Herr Hitlerinto the worst of all his crimes.But this I will say.Without a doubt.That the fate of Holland and Belgium,like that of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Austria,will be decided by the victory of the British Empireand the French Republic.If we are conquered, all will be enslaved.And the United States will be left, single-handed,to guard the rights of men.If we are not destroyed, all these countries,ancient countries, many of them,will be rescued and restored to life and freedom.It may well be that the final extinctionof a baleful domination will pave the wayto a broader solidarity of all the menin all the land, than we could ever have plannedif we had not marched together through the fire.- [Narrator] Britain did have one weaponthat was ready for war.The Royal Navy.Shortly after war was declared,it had swept German shipping from the high seas.The British fleet were deployed at Suez, Malta,Gibraltar, in the Channel, and in the North Sea,blockading Germany.World conquest for Germany would be impossiblewithout first taking Britain.Between Britain and Germany stood not only France,but also the countries of Luxembourg, Belgium,Holland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.The people of these small neutral countrieswere peaceful, hardworking and free.They knew they were in the middle,and feared violation of their neutrality.Hitler knew this.He also knew that if they united with the Allies,they would form a solid democratic wallagainst Nazi aggression, and that conquestwould be far more difficult.So, before striking with his armies,he used another weapon, the propaganda barrage,to confuse, to make them lose face, to divide and conquer.To lull the fears of the neutrals,propaganda minister Goebbels told them,Germany didn't want a war at all,it was Britain and France that caused all the trouble.Then, it was Hitler's turn.In his speech of October the sixth, 1939,he made them all kinds of specific promises.To the Danes, he said,we have concluded a non-aggression pact with Denmark.To the Norwegians he said,Germany never had any conflict with the Northern Statesand has none today.To the Dutch he said, the new Reichhas endeavored to continue the traditional friendshipwith Holland.And to the Belgians he announced,the Reich has put forth no claimwhich might in any way be regarded as a threat to Belgium.And while Hitler was making these promises,his generals were cold-bloodedly picking outthe first victim, Norway.Why did they pick Norway?Its many steep inlets and fjords would makeexcellent U-boat bases from which raiderscould prey on British supply lines.Also, it would give the Nazis vital airbases.The British naval base, and a blockade fleetwas at Scarpa Flow.At this time, the German-based bombers couldn'treach them.Possession of bases on Norway's western shorewould bring these vital British defensesunder easy bomber attack.But he couldn't take Norway without first taking Denmark,the springboard for his attack.So, at dawn on April the ninth, 1940...The German army rode across the neutral cornersof Denmark and in a matter of hourshad occupied the entire country.By nightfall, Denmark was erased as a nation.The Danes were now under the Nazi jackboot,although only six months before,Hitler had announced, we have concludeda non-aggression pact with Denmark.(martial music)Meanwhile, in Norway, German merchant shipshad sneaked inside Norway's neutral waterway,and tied up at all principal ports.However, these were not in factpeaceful merchant ships at all.They were packed full belowdeckswith German storm troops and equipment.At the same time, Nazi warships discoveredalong the entire coastline steamed upthe Norwegian fjords.Ships, transports, tanks, men, aircraft.All pounced simultaneously upon a defenseless country.Paratroopers immediately seized every strategicNorwegian airfield.The whole job was made easier by treacherouscolumnists led my Major Quisling,who seized power and issued orders to suppress resistance.Nazi warships steamed past silent gunsthat would have blasted them out of the water.This was one of the most amazing acts of treacherythe world has ever known.It brought Major Quisling international fame,making his very name synonymous with the word traitor.By the afternoon of April the ninth,the Germans were in complete controlof all seven ports where they had landed in the morning.(soldiers marching)For the first time in more than 200 yearsthe people of Norway saw an invading armyparading through their cities.Many of these Nazi soldiers strutting as conquerors in 1940,had last seen Norway some 20 years earlier,as refugee German children they had been raisedand cared for by kind Norwegians.Now, these same Germans were back to repaythat kindness with terror and destruction.Once they had occupied the capital,the Nazis quickly spanned out in all directions,the Royal Norwegian troops stopped one German columnbetween Hamar and Elverum.(guns shooting)So, the Luftwaffe deployed their bombers.(guns firing)(bombs exploding)Norwegians were forced to flee to the northunder constant bombardment from air attack.It was here that Captain Robert Losey,an American military attache was killed,the first American soldier to lose his life in this war.Meanwhile, the Nazis had spread all over the country,small patrols occupied every strategic village.Parachute troops landed high in the mountains.(planes buzzing)Unopposed bombing raids sent defenseless civiliansfleeing in stark terror.(bombs exploding)(siren wailing) (planes buzzing)The Norwegians hadn't wanted war.They had done everything to avoid it.Hoping they could escape the Nazi scourge,they had compromised and tragically failedto unite with the other democracies and now,they faced the German might defenseless and alone.For before the Allies could come to their aid,the Germans were in control of all principal ports.Regardless of this, British, French, and Polish contingentsmade several landings along the Norwegian coast.They landed forces north and south of Trondheim,and attempted an inserting movement on the city.Under constant, heavy, and almost entirely unopposedair attack.(bombs exploding)The scene of the action was out of rangeof British fighter planes, so the Royal Navybrought out aircraft carriers,but these are at a disadvantage when opposedby land-based planes.The Allies therefore, were badly battered from the air,finally suffering heavy losses, they withdrewfrom the hopeless situation.Further to the north at Narvik,they met with better success,inflicting heavy naval losses on the Nazis.(guns firing)They made landings and held the townfor nearly two months.(guns firing)They also took their first prisoners of war in the conflict.Again, the Nazis' overwhelming air superiorityproved a deciding factor.The Allies were forced to withdraw underterrific air bombardment.(planes buzzing) (guns firing)(bombs exploding)(guns firing)(planes buzzing)Loyal Norwegians were left with their quislings,their ruins, and their dead.Even though six months before Hitlerhad said, Germany never had any conflictwith the Northern States and has none today.(martial music)Hitler had another victory.He hijacked two more countries.He'd clubbed Norway into submissionand got what he wanted,bases for use against Britain.Now, he had the northern clawof an enormous pincer movement.A drive through France would give himthe southern claw.A blockade by U-boats coupled with mass bombing attackswould weaken the British for final invasion.Then, with Britain gone, Germany could reach outin all directions for world conquest.His next move was obviously to be through France,to get his southern claw.How was France to face the onslaught?The French had already built the mighty chainof fortresses called the Maginot Line.These tremendous bastions were built deepinto the French land.They were connected by underground passagesand railways, guarding France's eastern bordersfacing Germany.And, when France was finally forced to declare waragainst the rising Nazi menace,the French troops, instead of attacking,marched into their modern caves to wait for the Nazi blitzto smash itself against the Maginot Line.Their generals, headed by Marshal Petain,had announced, whoever makes the first move in this war,will be hurt.But Hitler didn't go near the Maginot Line.That was France's strong point.Instead, he attacked the weak point.Hitler knew that the French had triedto avoid war instead of preparing for it.That knowledge was one of his greatest weapons.He knew they had planes,but he knew they were antiquated.He knew they had tanks, but he knew they were fewin number, and lightly armored.But most important of all, he knew that Francehad become a cynical and disillusioned nation.The French had lost their united spirit.During the months of military inactivitycalled the Phony War, a ceaseless barrageof German propaganda crossed the still waters of the Rhine,to affect the soldiers in the Maginot Line.Why do you fight?Asked the banners.Poems and friendly notes were sent over by balloons.French tunes were played by German bands.And anti-British propaganda was broadcast in French.(wind blowing)France appeared ready to be conquered.The whole force of the Nazi might was turnedtowards the west.Holland and Belgium still clung to their neutrality,blocking the German advance wasthe dense forest of the Ardennes.Its roads, narrow trails, its bridges too weakfor military vehicles.French strategists estimated the forest of the Ardennesimpassable for armored forces.This was one of the costliest estimatesin all military history.That was the situation on May the ninth, 1940.(people marching)The hour of trial had come.(cheering)But the people of the democracies prayed for strengthto the coming hurricane of terror.(ominous music)While across the Rhine, (talking in foreign language)(cheering)A delirious menace possessed the German nation.(speaking in foreign language)(cheering)(speaking in foreign language)For Britain, there was a major turn of eventswhich was to affect the remainder of the war.Neville Chamberlain resigned as Prime Minister.The man who had boasted, peace in our time,was to be replaced by Winston Churchill.(martial music) (vehicles rumbling)(bell ringing)Without even bothering to declare war,on the 10th of May 1940, the German armieslaunched a coordinated attack acrossthe neutral borders of Luxembourg, Belgium, and Holland,from the Maginot Line north to the sea.The action along the entire front was simultaneous.So, for the purpose of clarity,we take up one country at a time.(bombs exploding)First, this is what happened in Holland.(tank rumbling)Nazi ground forces smashed throughthe improvised and hastily erected border defenses.But the main attack was to come from the air,far behind defense lines.(martial music)Over 10,000 troops were landed in this manner.Before the stunned citizens of Rotterdameven knew they were at war,these troops, aided by well-trained fifth columnists,quickly captured the airport and outlying sectionsof the city.Meantime, Nazi armored columns were racingacross their country, their progress speededby other fifth columnists who preventedthe destruction of vital dykes and bridges.These forces effected a meeting with the parachutistslanded in Rotterdam.The Dutch were doomed to defeat.On the fourth day of the invasion,the Nazis gave the Dutch general an ultimatum.All Dutch resistance must cease or Rotterdamwill be bombed flat.The Dutch general had little choice.To save the lives of innocent civilians,he accepted the German terms.But after the unconditional surrender,the Nazis bombed the city anyway.(bombs exploding)Flights of unopposed German bombers flew lowover the center of Rotterdam, and methodically bombed itinto a heap of rubble.(planes buzzing) (bombs exploding)(fire crackling)(ominous music)This was one of the most ruthless exhibitionsof savagery the world had ever seen.Over 30,000 men, women, and children were killedin the space of 90 minutes.Though only six months before, Hitler had said,The new Reich has endeavored to continuethe traditional friendship with Holland.Meantime, in Belgium, the whole force of Nazi blitzkrieghad stormed across its neutral borders.(vehicles rumbling)The main German attack was directedat the Eben canal Meuse River line,the anchor of which was Fort Eben Emael,a seemingly impregnable fortress.The Germans had secretly built a replicaof the mighty fortress in Czechoslovakia,and had rehearsed the attack until they knewevery detail of the fort's constructionand its every weakness.When the real attack came, it was foolproof.Specially trained engineer battalions,all working together as a well-trained team.(bombs exploding)They knew exactly where to cross the river.(plane whining)(siren wailing)(planes whining) (bombs exploding)(guns firing)(bombs exploding) (planes buzzing)(gun firing)(bomb exploding)(guns firing)You will notice that this assault engineer knowsexactly where to put his high explosive chargein order to destroy the blockhouse.(guns firing)Fort Eben Emael withstood the Nazi attackexactly two days, and the Germans rolled on.Meantime, an hour and a half afterthe German invasion began, Allied troopscrossed the French and Belgian borderto meet the advancing Germans.(vehicles rumbling)As they raced across Belgium to take uptheir defense positions, they met an obstaclethey hadn't counted on.Refugees.The Nazis methodically bombed little towns and villagesotherwise devoid of any military value.Not so much to kill, as to drive the inhabitants outinto the highways, hopelessly entanglingadvancing Allied armies.Refugees used as a weapon of war,a new low in inhumanity.(guns firing)(siren wailing) (bombs exploding)(fire crackling)No school today, the sign says.The children are otherwise occupied.(martial music) (child crying)Although only six months before, Hitler had announced,The Reich has put forth no claim which mightin any way be regarded as a threat to Belgium.But Belgians would not forget.But the attack on Belgium and Hollandwas only a feint.The main German attack was to be centeredwhere the Allies least expected it.Through the Ardennes Forest.For this decisive blow they had secretly assembledthe mightiest striking force the world had ever seen.Including 45,000 armored vehicles.(martial music)At the same time that the Nazi armieswere plunging into Holland and Belgium,this column started to move.(vehicles rumbling)Well-trained engineer battalions went first.(bombs exploding)They were opposed only by scattered Ally patrols.(guns firing)They cleared the pathways for the tanks to follow.(guns firing) (vehicles rumbling)In three days, the German's armored forcereached the Meuse River, two days fasterthan the French thought any troops would get through.By all rules, the Germans should have paused hereto bring up heavy artillery before attemptingto cross the river.But the Nazis had a new type of artillery, dive bombers.With them, they blasted the French positionsacross the Meuse.With feverish haste, the Germans laid a barrageacross the river, with anything and everythingthat would shoot.(guns firing)This tremendous concentration of firepowercontinued all through the night.(guns firing)By the following day, shock troops were ableto get across the river.(guns firing)These shock troops held the bridgeheaduntil the engineers brought up pontoons and built bridges.(guns firing)Then, without wasting a moment,across these bridges the main armored forceof the German military machine rolled through the Sedan.For the all-important breakthroughinto the dismayed and flatfooted France.For the Allies the writing was on the wall.Defeat was inevitable.It was now only a matter of how longthey could hold out.- It was a hideous dilemma which now presented itself,we accepted the (mumbles) plan, and made loyaland persistent, their now ineffectual effortsto carry it out until the 25th.With all the communications being cut,we counterattacked being repulsed,with the loss of our allies.The Belgian trunk being broken,it seems therefore about to capitulateall hope of escape to the south would vanish.There remained only the sea.So we, (mumbles), be surrounded,and broken up in the open field.In any case, the whole artillery and equipment of our army,irreplaceable for many months, must be lost.But what was that compared with saving the army.The nucleus and structure by whichlone Britain could build our armies of the future.Lord Gort, who had from the 25th onwards,(mumbles) the evacuation by sea was our only chance.I proceeded to bomb a bridge around Dunkirk,and divided for injury, with what strength remained.All the discipline of the British,and the quality of their commanders,who into Brook Alexander Montgomery,were to be needed.Much more was to be needed.All that man could do was done.Would it be enough?It was Tuesday the 28th of May,and I did not attend the House until that day.There was no advantage to be gained by a furtherstatement in the interval,nor did members express a wish for one.But everyone realized that the fate of our army,and perhaps much else, might well be decided by then.I had not seen many of my colleagues outside the War Cabinetexcept individually, since the formation of the government.And I thought it right to have a meeting in my roomat the House of Commons, of all ministersof cabinet rank other than the War Cabinet members.We were perhaps 25 around the table.I described the course of events,and I showed them plainly where we were,and all that was in the balance.Then I said quite casually, and not treating itas a point of special significance,"Of course, whatever happens at Dunkirk, we shall fight on."There occurred a demonstration which,considering the character of the gathering,25 experienced politicians and parliament men,who represented all the different points of view,whether right or wrong before the war,surprised me.Quite a number seemed to jump up from the tableand come running to my chair shouting and patting meon the back.There is no doubt that had I distract or falteredin the leading of the nation,I should have been hurled out of office.I was sure that every minister was ready to be killedquite soon, and have all his family possessions destroyedrather than give in.In this, they represented the House of Commons,and almost all the people.It showed to me in these coming days and months,to express their sentiments on suitable occasions.This, I was able to do, because they were mine also.There was a white glow, a (mumbles) sublime,which fanned through our island, from end to end.The admiral did it not hear to date,to give full reign to the spontaneous movementwhich swept the seafaring population of our southand southeastern shores.Everyone who had a boat of any kind, steam or sail,put out for Dunkirk, and the preparations fortunatelybegun a week earlier were now aidedby the brilliant improvisation of volunteerson an amazing scale.The numbers arriving on the 29th were small,but they were the forerunners of nearly 400 small craft,which from the 31st were destined to play a vital part,by ferrying from the beaches to the offline shipsalmost 100,000 men.Altogether, that came to the rescue of the armyunder the ceaseless air bombardment of the enemyabout 850 vessels, of which nearly 700 were British,and the rest Allied.Meanwhile, ashore around Dunkirk,the occupation of the perimeter,was effected with precision.The troops arrived out of chaos, and were formed in orderalong the defenses, which even in two days had grown.Hitler's belief that the German airforcewould render escape impossible,and that therefore he should keep his armored formations,for the final stroke of the campaign, was a mistake,but not unreasonable view.Three factors falsified his expectations.First, the incessant air bombing of the massing of troopsalong the sea shore, did very little harm.The bombs plunged into the soft sand,which muffled their explosions.In the early stages after a crashing air raid,the troops were astonished to findthat hardly anybody had been killed or wounded.Everywhere there'd been explosions,but scarcely anyone was the worse.A rocky shore would have produced far more deadly results.Presently, the soldiers regarded the air attackswith contempt.They crouched in the sand dunes with composureand growing hope.Before them lay the gray but not unfriendly sea,beyond the rescuing ships and home.The second factor which Hitler had not foreseenwas the slaughter of the (mumbles).British and German air quality was put directlyto the test.By intense effort, fighter command containedsuccessive patrols over the sea,and fought the enemy at long odds.Hour after hour they bit into the German fighterand bomber squadrons, taking a heavy toll,scattering them and driving them away.Day after day this went on,til the glorious victory of the Royal Air Force was gained.Wherever a German aircraft were encountered,sometimes in 40's and 50's, they were instantly attacked,often by single squadrons, all in,and shot down in scores, which presently added upto hundreds.The whole metropolitan airforce,our last sacred reserve, was used.Sometimes the fighter pilots made four sorties a day.A (mumbles).The superior enemy were beaten or killed,and for all their bravery, mastered, or even cowered.This was a decisive test.And they happened near the troops on the beaches,saw very little of this epic conflict in the air,often miles away or above the clouds.They knew nothing of the loss inflicted on the enemy.All they felt was the bombs scourging the beaches,cast by the foes who had got through,but did not perhaps return.There was even a bit of anger in the armyagainst the air force, and some of the troops,landing at Dover, or Thames ports in their ignorance,insulted men in air force uniform.They should have clasped their hands.But how could they know?In parliament I took pains to spread the truth.But all the aid of the sands and all the prowess in the airwould have been lain out to sea.The instructions given 10 or 12 days before,had under the pressure and emotion of events,borne amazing fruit.Perfect discipline prevailed (mumbles).The sea was calm, to and fro between the shoreand the ships, plied the little boats,gathering the men from the beaches as they waded out,or picking them from the water with total indifferenceto the air bombardment which often claimed its victims.Their numbers alone defied air attack,the mosquito armada as a whole were unsinkable.In the midst of our defeat, joy came to the island people,united and unconquerable.In the tale of the Dunkirk beaches,the shine in whatever records are preserved of our affairs.- [Narrator] The situation that now faced Francewas as nearly hopeless as a military situation can be.Two fifths of the French army were lost.Despairing people of Paris sent their children southin the hope that some miracle would keep them from harm.The hopeless men of the French army,without adequate arms or equipment,braced themselves for the coming blow.At the same time, Mussolini sent his divisionsracing across the border.- The hand that held the dagger, has struck itinto the back of its neighbor.(yelling)- [Narrator] Organized resistance in Francewas no longer possible.The government faced two alternatives.Retire to North Africa and carry on from there,or give up the struggle.France's leaders were old and tired,and the oldest and most tired was Marshal Petain.Persuaded by Levault, who saw in Germany victoryhis chance for personal power, on June the 16th,Petain asked for an armistice.The news was carried to Hitler,who received this word of a great nation's fallin a characteristic manner.Also characteristic, were his terms for the armistice.It must be signed in the coach where Marshal Fochmet the defeated Germans in the last war.A French delegation arrived to pay the final priceof French disunity,and the treachery of some of its leaders.The final price, a price for which centuries to comethe French would never forget.More than three fifths of the country was to beblacked out by military occupation.The remainder was to be controlled by a French governmentacceptable to Hitler.A tax of 400,000,000 francs a day was to be imposedon the French people to support the German armyof occupation.Nearly two million French prisoners of warwere to be taken into Germany and kept there as hostages,to work as slaves or rot of hunger, tuberculosis,or other diseases in concentration camps.These men were deliberately and permanently separatedfrom their families in order to decreasethe French birthrate and thus eliminate Franceas a world power in future generations.(somber music)And for those attempting to protestagainst these restrictions, thousands of innocentFrench civilians were executed.This was the price the French paid,as they signed the armistice.Hitler went to Paris to tour the streetsof what had been known as the City of Light.There were no cheering crowds to welcome himand the new order.(somber music)When the people of Paris came to the streets again,it was to hear the voice of the invaders,telling them what they must do,how they must live,what they must say.What they must think.Telling them how to exist under German occupation.Gone was the Republic of France, gone was free speech,and a free representative government.Gone, was liberty, equality, fraternity.These were the French.Although they listened, their minds and their heartswere down on the Mediterranean wherethe battle colors of the regiments were taken to Africa,out of the Nazi grasp.The people wept as their glory departed,but they didn't know that France had a deal of hopefrom a rallying point.Charles de Gaulle, a soldier, did not surrender.He vowed to continue to fight.Gathering about him loyal Frenchmen fromall over the world, he organized what becamethe Free French Army.But for most of the world, France had fallen.Nazi propagandists making full use of the new weapon,the radio, immediately turned their propaganda machineon the people of Britain.- [Radio Announcer] The blitzkriegwill be carried over the British islandswith greater, more appalling rapidity,than over Poland, Norway, Holland, Belgium, or France.- [Narrator] Only one state still stood against Germany.Western Europe's offshore island, Britain.And Britain had its Spitfires, flown by resoluteand skillful RAF pilots.In combat against this nimble fighter over Dunkirk,the German pilots found, for the first time,that their own aircraft could be out-turnedand out-climbed and for the first timethey were forced to fly to the limits of their performance.This was perhaps the first indicationthat the Luftwaffe was not invincible.(planes buzzing)Losses were high.With the fighters being engaged in dogfights,the bombers were flying without support,and suffered considerably as a consequence,as did the Stuckas.For the first time, the Luftwaffe had metan opponent of equal fighting capabilities in the air.And, as a consequence, prevented the Dunkirk evacuation.Following the fall of France, the Luftwaffewas withdrawn for a refit in expectationof the next phase of the war in the west,the invasion of the British Isles.As yet, however, the Luftwaffe had only a foretasteof effective and determined fighter opposition.But basking in the realms of victory,neither Goering, nor his senior commandershad yet recognized its implications.(cheering) (martial music)For operation Sealion, the invasion of Britain,the task of the Luftwaffe was twofold.One, they were to eliminate the Royal Air Forceboth as a fighting force and also as a ground organization.And two, they were to strangle the supply of Great Britainby destroying its ports and shipping.This was Britain in her darkest hour.- Of all the wars, that we have ever wagedin the long continuity of our history,there has never been one which more truly unitedthe entire British nation and British racethroughout the world, than this present fearful strugglefor the freedom and progress of mankind.(applauding)We entered it of our own free will,without being ourselves directly assaulted.All over the world, friend and foe alike,everyone who had not the eye of faith,might well have deemed our speedy ruin was at hand.Against the triumphant might of Hitlerwith a greedy Italian at his tail (laughing),we stood alone!With resources so slender that one shuddersto enumerate them now.(dramatic music)We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be.We shall fight on beaches, landing ground,in fields, in streets, and on the hills.We shall never surrender.(orchestral music)

< ?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?><>

< start="6.202" dur="2.917">(orchestral music)>

< start="49.287" dur="2.667">(plane zooming)>

< start="58.429" dur="3.914">- We tried again and again, to prevent this war.>

< start="62.343" dur="1.387">And for the sake of peace we've put up>

< start="63.73" dur="2.802">with a lot of things happening,>

< start="66.532" dur="2.694">which ought not to have happened.>

< start="69.226" dur="4.167">But now we are at war, and we are going to make war,>

< start="74.448" dur="3.568">and persevere in making war until the other side>

< start="78.016" dur="1.833">have had enough of it.>

< start="81.708" dur="3.933">We have been agreeably surprised that 10 weeks>

< start="85.641" dur="4.167">have been allotted to us to get into fighting trim.>

< start="91.218" dur="2.8">We are in a very different position>

< start="94.018" dur="2.833">from that we were in 10 weeks ago.>

< start="99.056" dur="3.563">We are far stronger than we were 10 weeks ago.>

< start="102.619" dur="4.167">We are far better prepared to endure the worst malice>

< start="108.184" dur="2.607">of Hitler and his Huns than we were>

< start="110.791" dur="2.315">at the beginning of September.>

< start="113.106" dur="2.349">We're, growing in numbers and improving in training>

< start="115.455" dur="0.833">every day.>

< start="118.687" dur="3.417">I shall not attempt to prophecise whether>

< start="122.959" dur="4.167">the frenzy of a cornered maniac will drive Herr Hitler>

< start="129.673" dur="3.16">into the worst of all his crimes.>

< start="132.833" dur="2.044">But this I will say.>

< start="134.877" dur="1.333">Without a doubt.>

< start="137.403" dur="3.438">That the fate of Holland and Belgium,>

< start="140.841" dur="4.083">like that of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Austria,>

< start="146.015" dur="4.084">will be decided by the victory of the British Empire>

< start="150.099" dur="2.682">and the French Republic.>

< start="152.781" dur="3.5">If we are conquered, all will be enslaved.>

< start="158.065" dur="3.554">And the United States will be left, single-handed,>

< start="161.619" dur="2.25">to guard the rights of men.>

< start="165.815" dur="4.52">If we are not destroyed, all these countries,>

< start="170.335" dur="3.014">ancient countries, many of them,>

< start="173.349" dur="4.083">will be rescued and restored to life and freedom.>

< start="178.493" dur="3.333">It may well be that the final extinction>

< start="182.925" dur="3.417">of a baleful domination will pave the way>

< start="187.543" dur="3.167">to a broader solidarity of all the men>

< start="193.034" dur="4">in all the land, than we could ever have planned>

< start="197.88" dur="4">if we had not marched together through the fire.>

< start="204.644" dur="1.486">- [Narrator] Britain did have one weapon>

< start="206.13" dur="2.605">that was ready for war.>

< start="208.735" dur="1.25">The Royal Navy.>

< start="211.099" dur="2.515">Shortly after war was declared,>

< start="213.614" dur="4.761">it had swept German shipping from the high seas.>

< start="218.375" dur="3.297">The British fleet were deployed at Suez, Malta,>

< start="221.672" dur="4.143">Gibraltar, in the Channel, and in the North Sea,>

< start="225.815" dur="1.583">blockading Germany.>

< start="228.54" dur="2.679">World conquest for Germany would be impossible>

< start="231.219" dur="2.417">without first taking Britain.>

< start="235.319" dur="4.167">Between Britain and Germany stood not only France,>

< start="241.91" dur="2.396">but also the countries of Luxembourg, Belgium,>

< start="244.306" dur="3.083">Holland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.>

< start="249.136" dur="2.694">The people of these small neutral countries>

< start="251.83" dur="3.585">were peaceful, hardworking and free.>

< start="255.415" dur="1.405">They knew they were in the middle,>

< start="256.82" dur="3.482">and feared violation of their neutrality.>

< start="260.302" dur="1.356">Hitler knew this.>

< start="261.658" dur="2.765">He also knew that if they united with the Allies,>

< start="264.423" dur="2.891">they would form a solid democratic wall>

< start="267.314" dur="3.263">against Nazi aggression, and that conquest>

< start="270.577" dur="2.623">would be far more difficult.>

< start="273.2" dur="1.812">So, before striking with his armies,>

< start="275.012" dur="3.67">he used another weapon, the propaganda barrage,>

< start="278.682" dur="4.167">to confuse, to make them lose face, to divide and conquer.>

< start="283.741" dur="1.99">To lull the fears of the neutrals,>

< start="285.731" dur="2.647">propaganda minister Goebbels told them,>

< start="288.378" dur="2.559">Germany didn't want a war at all,>

< start="290.937" dur="3.157">it was Britain and France that caused all the trouble.>

< start="294.094" dur="2.491">Then, it was Hitler's turn.>

< start="296.585" dur="3.18">In his speech of October the sixth, 1939,>

< start="299.765" dur="3.81">he made them all kinds of specific promises.>

< start="303.575" dur="1.531">To the Danes, he said,>

< start="305.106" dur="4.267">we have concluded a non-aggression pact with Denmark.>

< start="309.373" dur="1.283">To the Norwegians he said,>

< start="310.656" dur="3.515">Germany never had any conflict with the Northern States>

< start="314.171" dur="1.583">and has none today.>

< start="317.222" dur="2.353">To the Dutch he said, the new Reich>

< start="319.575" dur="3.05">has endeavored to continue the traditional friendship>

< start="322.625" dur="1.651">with Holland.>

< start="324.276" dur="2.106">And to the Belgians he announced,>

< start="326.382" dur="2.222">the Reich has put forth no claim>

< start="328.604" dur="4.504">which might in any way be regarded as a threat to Belgium.>

< start="333.108" dur="2.395">And while Hitler was making these promises,>

< start="335.503" dur="2.9">his generals were cold-bloodedly picking out>

< start="338.403" dur="2.083">the first victim, Norway.>

< start="341.427" dur="2.724">Why did they pick Norway?>

< start="344.151" dur="2.854">Its many steep inlets and fjords would make>

< start="347.005" dur="2.653">excellent U-boat bases from which raiders>

< start="349.658" dur="2.917">could prey on British supply lines.>

< start="353.439" dur="3.582">Also, it would give the Nazis vital airbases.>

< start="357.021" dur="3.383">The British naval base, and a blockade fleet>

< start="360.404" dur="2.073">was at Scarpa Flow.>

< start="362.477" dur="2.228">At this time, the German-based bombers couldn't>

< start="364.705" dur="1.522">reach them.>

< start="366.227" dur="2.648">Possession of bases on Norway's western shore>

< start="368.875" dur="1.998">would bring these vital British defenses>

< start="370.873" dur="2.083">under easy bomber attack.>

< start="374.063" dur="3.708">But he couldn't take Norway without first taking Denmark,>

< start="377.771" dur="2.231">the springboard for his attack.>

< start="380.002" dur="3.25">So, at dawn on April the ninth, 1940...>

< start="387.202" dur="1.984">The German army rode across the neutral corners>

< start="389.186" dur="2.527">of Denmark and in a matter of hours>

< start="391.713" dur="3.436">had occupied the entire country.>

< start="395.149" dur="4.188">By nightfall, Denmark was erased as a nation.>

< start="399.337" dur="2.727">The Danes were now under the Nazi jackboot,>

< start="402.064" dur="1.661">although only six months before,>

< start="403.725" dur="2.434">Hitler had announced, we have concluded>

< start="406.159" dur="3.018">a non-aggression pact with Denmark.>

< start="409.177" dur="2.667">(martial music)>

< start="413.83" dur="3.016">Meanwhile, in Norway, German merchant ships>

< start="416.846" dur="3.806">had sneaked inside Norway's neutral waterway,>

< start="420.652" dur="3.421">and tied up at all principal ports.>

< start="424.073" dur="1.413">However, these were not in fact>

< start="425.486" dur="2.583">peaceful merchant ships at all.>

< start="429.331" dur="2.565">They were packed full belowdecks>

< start="431.896" dur="3.25">with German storm troops and equipment.>

< start="439.913" dur="2.907">At the same time, Nazi warships discovered>

< start="442.82" dur="3.179">along the entire coastline steamed up>

< start="445.999" dur="2.03">the Norwegian fjords.>

< start="448.029" dur="3.333">Ships, transports, tanks, men, aircraft.>

< start="452.537" dur="4.167">All pounced simultaneously upon a defenseless country.>

< start="458.216" dur="2.35">Paratroopers immediately seized every strategic>

< start="460.566" dur="2.116">Norwegian airfield.>

< start="462.682" dur="2.145">The whole job was made easier by treacherous>

< start="464.827" dur="3.543">columnists led my Major Quisling,>

< start="468.37" dur="4.167">who seized power and issued orders to suppress resistance.>

< start="473.381" dur="3.725">Nazi warships steamed past silent guns>

< start="477.106" dur="2.906">that would have blasted them out of the water.>

< start="480.012" dur="2.521">This was one of the most amazing acts of treachery>

< start="482.533" dur="2.031">the world has ever known.>

< start="484.564" dur="3.878">It brought Major Quisling international fame,>

< start="488.442" dur="3.887">making his very name synonymous with the word traitor.>

< start="492.329" dur="1.945">By the afternoon of April the ninth,>

< start="494.274" dur="1.985">the Germans were in complete control>

< start="496.259" dur="4.444">of all seven ports where they had landed in the morning.>

< start="500.703" dur="3">(soldiers marching)>

< start="507.242" dur="2.11">For the first time in more than 200 years>

< start="509.352" dur="2.401">the people of Norway saw an invading army>

< start="511.753" dur="2.81">parading through their cities.>

< start="514.563" dur="3.886">Many of these Nazi soldiers strutting as conquerors in 1940,>

< start="518.449" dur="3.524">had last seen Norway some 20 years earlier,>

< start="521.973" dur="2.818">as refugee German children they had been raised>

< start="524.791" dur="2.75">and cared for by kind Norwegians.>

< start="529.242" dur="2.747">Now, these same Germans were back to repay>

< start="531.989" dur="3.5">that kindness with terror and destruction.>

< start="536.33" dur="2.055">Once they had occupied the capital,>

< start="538.385" dur="2.491">the Nazis quickly spanned out in all directions,>

< start="540.876" dur="3.482">the Royal Norwegian troops stopped one German column>

< start="544.358" dur="2.222">between Hamar and Elverum.>

< start="546.58" dur="2.667">(guns shooting)>

< start="560.765" dur="3.417">So, the Luftwaffe deployed their bombers.>

< start="565.243" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="570.771" dur="2.833">(bombs exploding)>

< start="585.087" dur="1.454">Norwegians were forced to flee to the north>

< start="586.541" dur="3.295">under constant bombardment from air attack.>

< start="589.836" dur="2.834">It was here that Captain Robert Losey,>

< start="592.67" dur="1.53">an American military attache was killed,>

< start="594.2" dur="4.167">the first American soldier to lose his life in this war.>

< start="599.233" dur="3.495">Meanwhile, the Nazis had spread all over the country,>

< start="602.728" dur="3.917">small patrols occupied every strategic village.>

< start="608.142" dur="4.415">Parachute troops landed high in the mountains.>

< start="612.557" dur="2.75">(planes buzzing)>

< start="618.421" dur="3.019">Unopposed bombing raids sent defenseless civilians>

< start="621.44" dur="2">fleeing in stark terror.>

< start="626.766" dur="2.833">(bombs exploding)>

< start="631.104" dur="4.167">(siren wailing) (planes buzzing)>

< start="647.83" dur="2.851">The Norwegians hadn't wanted war.>

< start="650.681" dur="3.235">They had done everything to avoid it.>

< start="653.916" dur="3.215">Hoping they could escape the Nazi scourge,>

< start="657.131" dur="2.275">they had compromised and tragically failed>

< start="659.406" dur="2.935">to unite with the other democracies and now,>

< start="662.341" dur="3.503">they faced the German might defenseless and alone.>

< start="665.844" dur="2.042">For before the Allies could come to their aid,>

< start="667.886" dur="4.365">the Germans were in control of all principal ports.>

< start="672.251" dur="3.382">Regardless of this, British, French, and Polish contingents>

< start="675.633" dur="4.83">made several landings along the Norwegian coast.>

< start="680.463" dur="2.606">They landed forces north and south of Trondheim,>

< start="683.069" dur="3.22">and attempted an inserting movement on the city.>

< start="686.289" dur="2.786">Under constant, heavy, and almost entirely unopposed>

< start="689.075" dur="0.917">air attack.>

< start="691.118" dur="2.833">(bombs exploding)>

< start="696.251" dur="1.683">The scene of the action was out of range>

< start="697.934" dur="3.433">of British fighter planes, so the Royal Navy>

< start="701.367" dur="1.65">brought out aircraft carriers,>

< start="703.017" dur="2.639">but these are at a disadvantage when opposed>

< start="705.656" dur="2.427">by land-based planes.>

< start="708.083" dur="3.1">The Allies therefore, were badly battered from the air,>

< start="711.183" dur="3.675">finally suffering heavy losses, they withdrew>

< start="714.858" dur="2.045">from the hopeless situation.>

< start="716.903" dur="1.534">Further to the north at Narvik,>

< start="718.437" dur="2.348">they met with better success,>

< start="720.785" dur="3.774">inflicting heavy naval losses on the Nazis.>

< start="724.559" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="748.329" dur="1.606">They made landings and held the town>

< start="749.935" dur="1.833">for nearly two months.>

< start="752.837" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="760.699" dur="4.167">They also took their first prisoners of war in the conflict.>

< start="766.038" dur="3.135">Again, the Nazis' overwhelming air superiority>

< start="769.173" dur="2.083">proved a deciding factor.>

< start="775.003" dur="2.571">The Allies were forced to withdraw under>

< start="777.574" dur="2.083">terrific air bombardment.>

< start="780.54" dur="4.167">(planes buzzing) (guns firing)>

< start="791.446" dur="2.833">(bombs exploding)>

< start="810.62" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="814.634" dur="2.75">(planes buzzing)>

< start="822.49" dur="2.445">Loyal Norwegians were left with their quislings,>

< start="824.935" dur="2.333">their ruins, and their dead.>

< start="828.481" dur="2.153">Even though six months before Hitler>

< start="830.634" dur="3.244">had said, Germany never had any conflict>

< start="833.878" dur="3.667">with the Northern States and has none today.>

< start="839.832" dur="2.667">(martial music)>

< start="843.537" dur="2.245">Hitler had another victory.>

< start="845.782" dur="3.22">He hijacked two more countries.>

< start="849.002" dur="2.192">He'd clubbed Norway into submission>

< start="851.194" dur="1.739">and got what he wanted,>

< start="852.933" dur="3.058">bases for use against Britain.>

< start="855.991" dur="2.229">Now, he had the northern claw>

< start="858.22" dur="2.933">of an enormous pincer movement.>

< start="861.153" dur="2.039">A drive through France would give him>

< start="863.192" dur="1.938">the southern claw.>

< start="865.13" dur="2.851">A blockade by U-boats coupled with mass bombing attacks>

< start="867.981" dur="3.801">would weaken the British for final invasion.>

< start="871.782" dur="2.865">Then, with Britain gone, Germany could reach out>

< start="874.647" dur="3.309">in all directions for world conquest.>

< start="877.956" dur="3.395">His next move was obviously to be through France,>

< start="881.351" dur="2.083">to get his southern claw.>

< start="884.275" dur="3.083">How was France to face the onslaught?>

< start="893.521" dur="2.257">The French had already built the mighty chain>

< start="895.778" dur="3.144">of fortresses called the Maginot Line.>

< start="898.922" dur="2.818">These tremendous bastions were built deep>

< start="901.74" dur="1.904">into the French land.>

< start="903.644" dur="1.951">They were connected by underground passages>

< start="905.595" dur="3.136">and railways, guarding France's eastern borders>

< start="908.731" dur="1.945">facing Germany.>

< start="910.676" dur="2.487">And, when France was finally forced to declare war>

< start="913.163" dur="3.058">against the rising Nazi menace,>

< start="916.221" dur="2.109">the French troops, instead of attacking,>

< start="918.33" dur="4.011">marched into their modern caves to wait for the Nazi blitz>

< start="922.341" dur="3.769">to smash itself against the Maginot Line.>

< start="926.11" dur="2.187">Their generals, headed by Marshal Petain,>

< start="928.297" dur="3.175">had announced, whoever makes the first move in this war,>

< start="931.472" dur="1.083">will be hurt.>

< start="934.614" dur="3.529">But Hitler didn't go near the Maginot Line.>

< start="938.143" dur="2.509">That was France's strong point.>

< start="940.652" dur="3.478">Instead, he attacked the weak point.>

< start="944.13" dur="1.936">Hitler knew that the French had tried>

< start="946.066" dur="3.406">to avoid war instead of preparing for it.>

< start="949.472" dur="3.612">That knowledge was one of his greatest weapons.>

< start="953.084" dur="1.195">He knew they had planes,>

< start="954.279" dur="1.98">but he knew they were antiquated.>

< start="956.259" dur="2.192">He knew they had tanks, but he knew they were few>

< start="958.451" dur="2.541">in number, and lightly armored.>

< start="960.992" dur="2.754">But most important of all, he knew that France>

< start="963.746" dur="3.54">had become a cynical and disillusioned nation.>

< start="967.286" dur="3.901">The French had lost their united spirit.>

< start="971.187" dur="2.529">During the months of military inactivity>

< start="973.716" dur="3.803">called the Phony War, a ceaseless barrage>

< start="977.519" dur="4.337">of German propaganda crossed the still waters of the Rhine,>

< start="981.856" dur="4.025">to affect the soldiers in the Maginot Line.>

< start="985.881" dur="1.734">Why do you fight?>

< start="987.615" dur="1.5">Asked the banners.>

< start="990.262" dur="4.985">Poems and friendly notes were sent over by balloons.>

< start="995.247" dur="3.438">French tunes were played by German bands.>

< start="998.685" dur="4.564">And anti-British propaganda was broadcast in French.>

< start="1003.249" dur="2.583">(wind blowing)>

< start="1026.238" dur="3.543">France appeared ready to be conquered.>

< start="1029.781" dur="2.269">The whole force of the Nazi might was turned>

< start="1032.05" dur="1.417">towards the west.>

< start="1034.485" dur="4.064">Holland and Belgium still clung to their neutrality,>

< start="1038.549" dur="2.064">blocking the German advance was>

< start="1040.613" dur="2.982">the dense forest of the Ardennes.>

< start="1043.595" dur="3.815">Its roads, narrow trails, its bridges too weak>

< start="1047.41" dur="1.824">for military vehicles.>

< start="1049.234" dur="3.226">French strategists estimated the forest of the Ardennes>

< start="1052.46" dur="3.019">impassable for armored forces.>

< start="1055.479" dur="2.825">This was one of the costliest estimates>

< start="1058.304" dur="1.857">in all military history.>

< start="1060.161" dur="4.06">That was the situation on May the ninth, 1940.>

< start="1064.221" dur="2.833">(people marching)>

< start="1071.061" dur="2.25">The hour of trial had come.>

< start="1074.25" dur="2.25">(cheering)>

< start="1080.528" dur="2.855">But the people of the democracies prayed for strength>

< start="1083.383" dur="2.833">to the coming hurricane of terror.>

< start="1087.154" dur="2.667">(ominous music)>

< start="1095.218" dur="4.167">While across the Rhine, (talking in foreign language)>

< start="1101.442" dur="2.25">(cheering)>

< start="1109.526" dur="4.136">A delirious menace possessed the German nation.>

< start="1113.662" dur="3.917">(speaking in foreign language)>

< start="1140.903" dur="2.25">(cheering)>

< start="1154.34" dur="3.917">(speaking in foreign language)>

< start="1174.874" dur="3.224">For Britain, there was a major turn of events>

< start="1178.098" dur="4.098">which was to affect the remainder of the war.>

< start="1182.196" dur="3.917">Neville Chamberlain resigned as Prime Minister.>

< start="1188.699" dur="3.477">The man who had boasted, peace in our time,>

< start="1192.176" dur="3.694">was to be replaced by Winston Churchill.>

< start="1195.87" dur="4.167">(martial music) (vehicles rumbling)>

< start="1211.569" dur="2.583">(bell ringing)>

< start="1228.131" dur="2.147">Without even bothering to declare war,>

< start="1230.278" dur="3.017">on the 10th of May 1940, the German armies>

< start="1233.295" dur="2.279">launched a coordinated attack across>

< start="1235.574" dur="3.027">the neutral borders of Luxembourg, Belgium, and Holland,>

< start="1238.601" dur="3.314">from the Maginot Line north to the sea.>

< start="1241.915" dur="4.22">The action along the entire front was simultaneous.>

< start="1246.135" dur="1.199">So, for the purpose of clarity,>

< start="1247.334" dur="2.75">we take up one country at a time.>

< start="1251.182" dur="3.138">(bombs exploding)>

< start="1254.32" dur="4.105">First, this is what happened in Holland.>

< start="1258.425" dur="2.667">(tank rumbling)>

< start="1265.715" dur="2.451">Nazi ground forces smashed through>

< start="1268.166" dur="4.776">the improvised and hastily erected border defenses.>

< start="1272.942" dur="2.362">But the main attack was to come from the air,>

< start="1275.304" dur="2.083">far behind defense lines.>

< start="1279.741" dur="2.667">(martial music)>

< start="1328.403" dur="3.693">Over 10,000 troops were landed in this manner.>

< start="1332.096" dur="2.407">Before the stunned citizens of Rotterdam>

< start="1334.503" dur="2.25">even knew they were at war,>

< start="1337.854" dur="3.631">these troops, aided by well-trained fifth columnists,>

< start="1341.485" dur="2.735">quickly captured the airport and outlying sections>

< start="1344.22" dur="1">of the city.>

< start="1348.492" dur="3.29">Meantime, Nazi armored columns were racing>

< start="1351.782" dur="2.962">across their country, their progress speeded>

< start="1354.744" dur="2.454">by other fifth columnists who prevented>

< start="1357.198" dur="3.224">the destruction of vital dykes and bridges.>

< start="1360.422" dur="2.81">These forces effected a meeting with the parachutists>

< start="1363.232" dur="2.28">landed in Rotterdam.>

< start="1365.512" dur="2.667">The Dutch were doomed to defeat.>

< start="1371.387" dur="2.205">On the fourth day of the invasion,>

< start="1373.592" dur="3.586">the Nazis gave the Dutch general an ultimatum.>

< start="1377.178" dur="4.419">All Dutch resistance must cease or Rotterdam>

< start="1381.597" dur="1.667">will be bombed flat.>

< start="1389.659" dur="2.191">The Dutch general had little choice.>

< start="1391.85" dur="2.028">To save the lives of innocent civilians,>

< start="1393.878" dur="2.162">he accepted the German terms.>

< start="1396.04" dur="2.399">But after the unconditional surrender,>

< start="1398.439" dur="3.114">the Nazis bombed the city anyway.>

< start="1401.553" dur="3.122">(bombs exploding)>

< start="1404.675" dur="2.963">Flights of unopposed German bombers flew low>

< start="1407.638" dur="4.256">over the center of Rotterdam, and methodically bombed it>

< start="1411.894" dur="1.833">into a heap of rubble.>

< start="1415.235" dur="4.167">(planes buzzing) (bombs exploding)>

< start="1474.594" dur="2.75">(fire crackling)>

< start="1495.647" dur="2.667">(ominous music)>

< start="1512.683" dur="2.652">This was one of the most ruthless exhibitions>

< start="1515.335" dur="3.439">of savagery the world had ever seen.>

< start="1518.774" dur="3.637">Over 30,000 men, women, and children were killed>

< start="1522.411" dur="2.566">in the space of 90 minutes.>

< start="1524.977" dur="3.917">Though only six months before, Hitler had said,>

< start="1530.631" dur="2.159">The new Reich has endeavored to continue>

< start="1532.79" dur="3.333">the traditional friendship with Holland.>

< start="1540.186" dur="3.803">Meantime, in Belgium, the whole force of Nazi blitzkrieg>

< start="1543.989" dur="4.045">had stormed across its neutral borders.>

< start="1548.034" dur="3">(vehicles rumbling)>

< start="1552.852" dur="1.869">The main German attack was directed>

< start="1554.721" dur="3.011">at the Eben canal Meuse River line,>

< start="1557.732" dur="2.807">the anchor of which was Fort Eben Emael,>

< start="1560.539" dur="2.43">a seemingly impregnable fortress.>

< start="1562.969" dur="2.163">The Germans had secretly built a replica>

< start="1565.132" dur="2.486">of the mighty fortress in Czechoslovakia,>

< start="1567.618" dur="2.617">and had rehearsed the attack until they knew>

< start="1570.235" dur="2.891">every detail of the fort's construction>

< start="1573.126" dur="2.652">and its every weakness.>

< start="1575.778" dur="3.92">When the real attack came, it was foolproof.>

< start="1579.698" dur="1.949">Specially trained engineer battalions,>

< start="1581.647" dur="3.667">all working together as a well-trained team.>

< start="1586.226" dur="3.446">(bombs exploding)>

< start="1589.672" dur="3.626">They knew exactly where to cross the river.>

< start="1593.298" dur="2.667">(plane whining)>

< start="1597.498" dur="2.667">(siren wailing)>

< start="1602.1" dur="4.167">(planes whining) (bombs exploding)>

< start="1612.643" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="1626.699" dur="4.167">(bombs exploding) (planes buzzing)>

< start="1635.797" dur="2.417">(gun firing)>

< start="1647.175" dur="2.75">(bomb exploding)>

< start="1652.147" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="1670.305" dur="2.405">You will notice that this assault engineer knows>

< start="1672.71" dur="3.996">exactly where to put his high explosive charge>

< start="1676.706" dur="2.917">in order to destroy the blockhouse.>

< start="1682.858" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="1694.907" dur="3.066">Fort Eben Emael withstood the Nazi attack>

< start="1697.973" dur="3.667">exactly two days, and the Germans rolled on.>

< start="1704.55" dur="2.442">Meantime, an hour and a half after>

< start="1706.992" dur="2.107">the German invasion began, Allied troops>

< start="1709.099" dur="2.45">crossed the French and Belgian border>

< start="1711.549" dur="3.225">to meet the advancing Germans.>

< start="1714.774" dur="3">(vehicles rumbling)>

< start="1724.121" dur="1.895">As they raced across Belgium to take up>

< start="1726.016" dur="2.251">their defense positions, they met an obstacle>

< start="1728.267" dur="1.917">they hadn't counted on.>

< start="1731.084" dur="1.533">Refugees.>

< start="1732.617" dur="3.869">The Nazis methodically bombed little towns and villages>

< start="1736.486" dur="3.531">otherwise devoid of any military value.>

< start="1740.017" dur="4.958">Not so much to kill, as to drive the inhabitants out>

< start="1744.975" dur="2.321">into the highways, hopelessly entangling>

< start="1747.296" dur="2">advancing Allied armies.>

< start="1758.763" dur="2.998">Refugees used as a weapon of war,>

< start="1761.761" dur="2">a new low in inhumanity.>

< start="1765.886" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="1776.307" dur="4.167">(siren wailing) (bombs exploding)>

< start="1846.191" dur="2.75">(fire crackling)>

< start="1852.9" dur="3.111">No school today, the sign says.>

< start="1856.011" dur="2.774">The children are otherwise occupied.>

< start="1858.785" dur="4.167">(martial music) (child crying)>

< start="1893.245" dur="3.936">Although only six months before, Hitler had announced,>

< start="1897.181" dur="2.735">The Reich has put forth no claim which might>

< start="1899.916" dur="4.198">in any way be regarded as a threat to Belgium.>

< start="1904.114" dur="2.895">But Belgians would not forget.>

< start="1907.009" dur="1.701">But the attack on Belgium and Holland>

< start="1908.71" dur="1.771">was only a feint.>

< start="1910.481" dur="3.005">The main German attack was to be centered>

< start="1913.486" dur="3.009">where the Allies least expected it.>

< start="1916.495" dur="2.155">Through the Ardennes Forest.>

< start="1918.65" dur="2.533">For this decisive blow they had secretly assembled>

< start="1921.183" dur="4.173">the mightiest striking force the world had ever seen.>

< start="1925.356" dur="2.833">Including 45,000 armored vehicles.>

< start="1929.91" dur="2.667">(martial music)>

< start="1937.649" dur="1.248">At the same time that the Nazi armies>

< start="1938.897" dur="2.574">were plunging into Holland and Belgium,>

< start="1941.471" dur="2.333">this column started to move.>

< start="1944.777" dur="3">(vehicles rumbling)>

< start="1968.488" dur="3.962">Well-trained engineer battalions went first.>

< start="1972.45" dur="2.833">(bombs exploding)>

< start="1981.742" dur="4.384">They were opposed only by scattered Ally patrols.>

< start="1986.126" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="2001.006" dur="4.167">They cleared the pathways for the tanks to follow.>

< start="2007.142" dur="4.167">(guns firing) (vehicles rumbling)>

< start="2041.34" dur="2.06">In three days, the German's armored force>

< start="2043.4" dur="3.175">reached the Meuse River, two days faster>

< start="2046.575" dur="3.814">than the French thought any troops would get through.>

< start="2050.389" dur="2.736">By all rules, the Germans should have paused here>

< start="2053.125" dur="2.608">to bring up heavy artillery before attempting>

< start="2055.733" dur="2.153">to cross the river.>

< start="2057.886" dur="4.702">But the Nazis had a new type of artillery, dive bombers.>

< start="2062.588" dur="2.315">With them, they blasted the French positions>

< start="2064.903" dur="1.417">across the Meuse.>

< start="2070.824" dur="2.234">With feverish haste, the Germans laid a barrage>

< start="2073.058" dur="2.239">across the river, with anything and everything>

< start="2075.297" dur="1.417">that would shoot.>

< start="2077.904" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="2108.253" dur="2.187">This tremendous concentration of firepower>

< start="2110.44" dur="3.302">continued all through the night.>

< start="2113.742" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="2127.846" dur="2.115">By the following day, shock troops were able>

< start="2129.961" dur="2.289">to get across the river.>

< start="2132.25" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="2165.969" dur="2.152">These shock troops held the bridgehead>

< start="2168.121" dur="4.167">until the engineers brought up pontoons and built bridges.>

< start="2174.234" dur="2.5">(guns firing)>

< start="2194.366" dur="1.979">Then, without wasting a moment,>

< start="2196.345" dur="2.148">across these bridges the main armored force>

< start="2198.493" dur="4.982">of the German military machine rolled through the Sedan.>

< start="2203.475" dur="2.346">For the all-important breakthrough>

< start="2205.821" dur="3.922">into the dismayed and flatfooted France.>

< start="2209.743" dur="2.502">For the Allies the writing was on the wall.>

< start="2212.245" dur="2.24">Defeat was inevitable.>

< start="2214.485" dur="1.692">It was now only a matter of how long>

< start="2216.177" dur="2.185">they could hold out.>

< start="2218.362" dur="3.216">- It was a hideous dilemma which now presented itself,>

< start="2221.578" dur="3.91">we accepted the (mumbles) plan, and made loyal>

< start="2225.488" dur="1.773">and persistent, their now ineffectual efforts>

< start="2227.261" dur="2.766">to carry it out until the 25th.>

< start="2230.027" dur="2.572">With all the communications being cut,>

< start="2232.599" dur="2.192">we counterattacked being repulsed,>

< start="2234.791" dur="1.668">with the loss of our allies.>

< start="2236.459" dur="2.156">The Belgian trunk being broken,>

< start="2238.615" dur="2.192">it seems therefore about to capitulate>

< start="2240.807" dur="3.559">all hope of escape to the south would vanish.>

< start="2244.366" dur="2.812">There remained only the sea.>

< start="2247.178" dur="2.398">So we, (mumbles), be surrounded,>

< start="2249.576" dur="2.271">and broken up in the open field.>

< start="2251.847" dur="3.236">In any case, the whole artillery and equipment of our army,>

< start="2255.083" dur="3.301">irreplaceable for many months, must be lost.>

< start="2258.384" dur="2.865">But what was that compared with saving the army.>

< start="2261.249" dur="1.523">The nucleus and structure by which>

< start="2262.772" dur="4.582">lone Britain could build our armies of the future.>

< start="2267.354" dur="3.233">Lord Gort, who had from the 25th onwards,>

< start="2270.587" dur="2.952">(mumbles) the evacuation by sea was our only chance.>

< start="2273.539" dur="3.022">I proceeded to bomb a bridge around Dunkirk,>

< start="2276.561" dur="4.014">and divided for injury, with what strength remained.>

< start="2280.575" dur="1.741">All the discipline of the British,>

< start="2282.316" dur="2.767">and the quality of their commanders,>

< start="2285.083" dur="3.353">who into Brook Alexander Montgomery,>

< start="2288.436" dur="1.408">were to be needed.>

< start="2289.844" dur="2.389">Much more was to be needed.>

< start="2292.233" dur="2.444">All that man could do was done.>

< start="2294.677" dur="1.583">Would it be enough?>

< start="2305.046" dur="3.141">It was Tuesday the 28th of May,>

< start="2308.187" dur="3.932">and I did not attend the House until that day.>

< start="2312.119" dur="1.832">There was no advantage to be gained by a further>

< start="2313.951" dur="1.867">statement in the interval,>

< start="2315.818" dur="2.975">nor did members express a wish for one.>

< start="2318.793" dur="2.77">But everyone realized that the fate of our army,>

< start="2321.563" dur="4.349">and perhaps much else, might well be decided by then.>

< start="2325.912" dur="2.915">I had not seen many of my colleagues outside the War Cabinet>

< start="2328.827" dur="3.884">except individually, since the formation of the government.>

< start="2332.711" dur="2.491">And I thought it right to have a meeting in my room>

< start="2335.202" dur="2.517">at the House of Commons, of all ministers>

< start="2337.719" dur="4.141">of cabinet rank other than the War Cabinet members.>

< start="2341.86" dur="3.651">We were perhaps 25 around the table.>

< start="2345.511" dur="2.229">I described the course of events,>

< start="2347.74" dur="2.446">and I showed them plainly where we were,>

< start="2350.186" dur="3.026">and all that was in the balance.>

< start="2353.212" dur="2.323">Then I said quite casually, and not treating it>

< start="2355.535" dur="2.638">as a point of special significance,>

< start="2358.173" dur="3.81">"Of course, whatever happens at Dunkirk, we shall fight on.">

< start="2361.983" dur="1.528">There occurred a demonstration which,>

< start="2363.511" dur="1.943">considering the character of the gathering,>

< start="2365.454" dur="3.894">25 experienced politicians and parliament men,>

< start="2369.348" dur="2.395">who represented all the different points of view,>

< start="2371.743" dur="2.618">whether right or wrong before the war,>

< start="2374.361" dur="1.083">surprised me.>

< start="2376.476" dur="1.941">Quite a number seemed to jump up from the table>

< start="2378.417" dur="2.965">and come running to my chair shouting and patting me>

< start="2381.382" dur="1">on the back.>

< start="2383.236" dur="2.719">There is no doubt that had I distract or faltered>

< start="2385.955" dur="2.523">in the leading of the nation,>

< start="2388.478" dur="2.154">I should have been hurled out of office.>

< start="2390.632" dur="2.003">I was sure that every minister was ready to be killed>

< start="2392.635" dur="3.269">quite soon, and have all his family possessions destroyed>

< start="2395.904" dur="1.667">rather than give in.>

< start="2399.015" dur="2.872">In this, they represented the House of Commons,>

< start="2401.887" dur="2.811">and almost all the people.>

< start="2404.698" dur="1.731">It showed to me in these coming days and months,>

< start="2406.429" dur="4.544">to express their sentiments on suitable occasions.>

< start="2410.973" dur="4.058">This, I was able to do, because they were mine also.>

< start="2415.031" dur="3.552">There was a white glow, a (mumbles) sublime,>

< start="2418.583" dur="3.881">which fanned through our island, from end to end.>

< start="2422.464" dur="2.105">The admiral did it not hear to date,>

< start="2424.569" dur="2.722">to give full reign to the spontaneous movement>

< start="2427.291" dur="4.224">which swept the seafaring population of our south>

< start="2431.515" dur="2.727">and southeastern shores.>

< start="2434.242" dur="3.093">Everyone who had a boat of any kind, steam or sail,>

< start="2437.335" dur="3.402">put out for Dunkirk, and the preparations fortunately>

< start="2440.737" dur="2.307">begun a week earlier were now aided>

< start="2443.044" dur="3.295">by the brilliant improvisation of volunteers>

< start="2446.339" dur="2.249">on an amazing scale.>

< start="2448.588" dur="2.73">The numbers arriving on the 29th were small,>

< start="2451.318" dur="3.262">but they were the forerunners of nearly 400 small craft,>

< start="2454.58" dur="3.831">which from the 31st were destined to play a vital part,>

< start="2458.411" dur="3.566">by ferrying from the beaches to the offline ships>

< start="2461.977" dur="2.364">almost 100,000 men.>

< start="2464.341" dur="2.484">Altogether, that came to the rescue of the army>

< start="2466.825" dur="2.741">under the ceaseless air bombardment of the enemy>

< start="2469.566" dur="4.953">about 850 vessels, of which nearly 700 were British,>

< start="2474.519" dur="1.944">and the rest Allied.>

< start="2476.463" dur="2.374">Meanwhile, ashore around Dunkirk,>

< start="2478.837" dur="1.576">the occupation of the perimeter,>

< start="2480.413" dur="1.855">was effected with precision.>

< start="2482.268" dur="3.182">The troops arrived out of chaos, and were formed in order>

< start="2485.45" dur="4.081">along the defenses, which even in two days had grown.>

< start="2489.531" dur="2.068">Hitler's belief that the German airforce>

< start="2491.599" dur="2.273">would render escape impossible,>

< start="2493.872" dur="3.84">and that therefore he should keep his armored formations,>

< start="2497.712" dur="3.322">for the final stroke of the campaign, was a mistake,>

< start="2501.034" dur="2.441">but not unreasonable view.>

< start="2503.475" dur="3.012">Three factors falsified his expectations.>

< start="2506.487" dur="2.974">First, the incessant air bombing of the massing of troops>

< start="2509.461" dur="4.032">along the sea shore, did very little harm.>

< start="2513.493" dur="2.197">The bombs plunged into the soft sand,>

< start="2515.69" dur="2.64">which muffled their explosions.>

< start="2518.33" dur="2.849">In the early stages after a crashing air raid,>

< start="2521.179" dur="1.709">the troops were astonished to find>

< start="2522.888" dur="2.893">that hardly anybody had been killed or wounded.>

< start="2525.781" dur="2.062">Everywhere there'd been explosions,>

< start="2527.843" dur="2.766">but scarcely anyone was the worse.>

< start="2530.609" dur="4.229">A rocky shore would have produced far more deadly results.>

< start="2534.838" dur="2.493">Presently, the soldiers regarded the air attacks>

< start="2537.331" dur="1.699">with contempt.>

< start="2539.03" dur="2.069">They crouched in the sand dunes with composure>

< start="2541.099" dur="1.417">and growing hope.>

< start="2543.754" dur="3.265">Before them lay the gray but not unfriendly sea,>

< start="2547.019" dur="2.917">beyond the rescuing ships and home.>

< start="2551.907" dur="3.329">The second factor which Hitler had not foreseen>

< start="2555.236" dur="1.889">was the slaughter of the (mumbles).>

< start="2557.125" dur="2.068">British and German air quality was put directly>

< start="2559.193" dur="1">to the test.>

< start="2561.225" dur="2.866">By intense effort, fighter command contained>

< start="2564.091" dur="2.685">successive patrols over the sea,>

< start="2566.776" dur="2.493">and fought the enemy at long odds.>

< start="2569.269" dur="2.288">Hour after hour they bit into the German fighter>

< start="2571.557" dur="2.6">and bomber squadrons, taking a heavy toll,>

< start="2574.157" dur="2.909">scattering them and driving them away.>

< start="2577.066" dur="1.941">Day after day this went on,>

< start="2579.007" dur="3.324">til the glorious victory of the Royal Air Force was gained.>

< start="2582.331" dur="2.266">Wherever a German aircraft were encountered,>

< start="2584.597" dur="4.072">sometimes in 40's and 50's, they were instantly attacked,>

< start="2588.669" dur="2.544">often by single squadrons, all in,>

< start="2591.213" dur="2.484">and shot down in scores, which presently added up>

< start="2593.697" dur="1">to hundreds.>

< start="2595.77" dur="1.86">The whole metropolitan airforce,>

< start="2597.63" dur="2.444">our last sacred reserve, was used.>

< start="2600.074" dur="4.098">Sometimes the fighter pilots made four sorties a day.>

< start="2604.172" dur="1.948">A (mumbles).>

< start="2606.12" dur="2.694">The superior enemy were beaten or killed,>

< start="2608.814" dur="4.218">and for all their bravery, mastered, or even cowered.>

< start="2613.032" dur="2.655">This was a decisive test.>

< start="2615.687" dur="1.982">And they happened near the troops on the beaches,>

< start="2617.669" dur="3.272">saw very little of this epic conflict in the air,>

< start="2620.941" dur="3.272">often miles away or above the clouds.>

< start="2624.213" dur="2.94">They knew nothing of the loss inflicted on the enemy.>

< start="2627.153" dur="3.228">All they felt was the bombs scourging the beaches,>

< start="2630.381" dur="1.873">cast by the foes who had got through,>

< start="2632.254" dur="2.776">but did not perhaps return.>

< start="2635.03" dur="2.361">There was even a bit of anger in the army>

< start="2637.391" dur="2.109">against the air force, and some of the troops,>

< start="2639.5" dur="3.931">landing at Dover, or Thames ports in their ignorance,>

< start="2643.431" dur="2.892">insulted men in air force uniform.>

< start="2646.323" dur="2.317">They should have clasped their hands.>

< start="2648.64" dur="1.872">But how could they know?>

< start="2650.512" dur="2.613">In parliament I took pains to spread the truth.>

< start="2653.125" dur="4.269">But all the aid of the sands and all the prowess in the air>

< start="2657.394" dur="2.491">would have been lain out to sea.>

< start="2659.885" dur="2.535">The instructions given 10 or 12 days before,>

< start="2662.42" dur="2.98">had under the pressure and emotion of events,>

< start="2665.4" dur="2.153">borne amazing fruit.>

< start="2667.553" dur="3.906">Perfect discipline prevailed (mumbles).>

< start="2671.459" dur="2.985">The sea was calm, to and fro between the shore>

< start="2674.444" dur="2.322">and the ships, plied the little boats,>

< start="2676.766" dur="2.869">gathering the men from the beaches as they waded out,>

< start="2679.635" dur="3.933">or picking them from the water with total indifference>

< start="2683.568" dur="4.275">to the air bombardment which often claimed its victims.>

< start="2687.843" dur="2.571">Their numbers alone defied air attack,>

< start="2690.414" dur="3.928">the mosquito armada as a whole were unsinkable.>

< start="2694.342" dur="3.138">In the midst of our defeat, joy came to the island people,>

< start="2697.48" dur="2.719">united and unconquerable.>

< start="2700.199" dur="1.867">In the tale of the Dunkirk beaches,>

< start="2702.066" dur="4.167">the shine in whatever records are preserved of our affairs.>

< start="2714.323" dur="1.908">- [Narrator] The situation that now faced France>

< start="2716.231" dur="4.167">was as nearly hopeless as a military situation can be.>

< start="2721.4" dur="3.717">Two fifths of the French army were lost.>

< start="2725.117" dur="3.623">Despairing people of Paris sent their children south>

< start="2728.74" dur="4.167">in the hope that some miracle would keep them from harm.>

< start="2741.142" dur="1.83">The hopeless men of the French army,>

< start="2742.972" dur="2.404">without adequate arms or equipment,>

< start="2745.376" dur="3.651">braced themselves for the coming blow.>

< start="2749.027" dur="3.234">At the same time, Mussolini sent his divisions>

< start="2752.261" dur="2.083">racing across the border.>

< start="2757.553" dur="4.424">- The hand that held the dagger, has struck it>

< start="2761.977" dur="3.092">into the back of its neighbor.>

< start="2765.069" dur="2.167">(yelling)>

< start="2774.088" dur="2.267">- [Narrator] Organized resistance in France>

< start="2776.355" dur="1.893">was no longer possible.>

< start="2778.248" dur="3.065">The government faced two alternatives.>

< start="2781.313" dur="3.205">Retire to North Africa and carry on from there,>

< start="2784.518" dur="1.893">or give up the struggle.>

< start="2786.411" dur="2.52">France's leaders were old and tired,>

< start="2788.931" dur="3.221">and the oldest and most tired was Marshal Petain.>

< start="2792.152" dur="2.499">Persuaded by Levault, who saw in Germany victory>

< start="2794.651" dur="3.959">his chance for personal power, on June the 16th,>

< start="2798.61" dur="2.5">Petain asked for an armistice.>

< start="2802.034" dur="2.308">The news was carried to Hitler,>

< start="2804.342" dur="2.484">who received this word of a great nation's fall>

< start="2806.826" dur="2.25">in a characteristic manner.>

< start="2810.297" dur="4.219">Also characteristic, were his terms for the armistice.>

< start="2814.516" dur="3.505">It must be signed in the coach where Marshal Foch>

< start="2818.021" dur="3.417">met the defeated Germans in the last war.>

< start="2836.787" dur="3.126">A French delegation arrived to pay the final price>

< start="2839.913" dur="1.742">of French disunity,>

< start="2841.655" dur="3.417">and the treachery of some of its leaders.>

< start="2849.373" dur="4.3">The final price, a price for which centuries to come>

< start="2853.673" dur="2.5">the French would never forget.>

< start="2859.766" dur="2.064">More than three fifths of the country was to be>

< start="2861.83" dur="3.325">blacked out by military occupation.>

< start="2865.155" dur="2.846">The remainder was to be controlled by a French government>

< start="2868.001" dur="2.395">acceptable to Hitler.>

< start="2870.396" dur="4.042">A tax of 400,000,000 francs a day was to be imposed>

< start="2874.438" dur="2.557">on the French people to support the German army>

< start="2876.995" dur="1.167">of occupation.>

< start="2879.52" dur="2.727">Nearly two million French prisoners of war>

< start="2882.247" dur="4.372">were to be taken into Germany and kept there as hostages,>

< start="2886.619" dur="4.251">to work as slaves or rot of hunger, tuberculosis,>

< start="2890.87" dur="2.975">or other diseases in concentration camps.>

< start="2893.845" dur="2.442">These men were deliberately and permanently separated>

< start="2896.287" dur="2.812">from their families in order to decrease>

< start="2899.099" dur="3.572">the French birthrate and thus eliminate France>

< start="2902.671" dur="3.25">as a world power in future generations.>

< start="2906.804" dur="2.583">(somber music)>

< start="2916.598" dur="2.231">And for those attempting to protest>

< start="2918.829" dur="2.97">against these restrictions, thousands of innocent>

< start="2921.799" dur="2.583">French civilians were executed.>

< start="2929.227" dur="1.895">This was the price the French paid,>

< start="2931.122" dur="2.417">as they signed the armistice.>

< start="2937.073" dur="1.858">Hitler went to Paris to tour the streets>

< start="2938.931" dur="3.177">of what had been known as the City of Light.>

< start="2942.108" dur="2.225">There were no cheering crowds to welcome him>

< start="2944.333" dur="1.5">and the new order.>

< start="2947.358" dur="2.583">(somber music)>

< start="2954.586" dur="2.879">When the people of Paris came to the streets again,>

< start="2957.465" dur="2.609">it was to hear the voice of the invaders,>

< start="2960.074" dur="2.583">telling them what they must do,>

< start="2964.782" dur="1.929">how they must live,>

< start="2966.711" dur="1.583">what they must say.>

< start="2969.857" dur="2.016">What they must think.>

< start="2971.873" dur="3.844">Telling them how to exist under German occupation.>

< start="2975.717" dur="4.641">Gone was the Republic of France, gone was free speech,>

< start="2980.358" dur="2.312">and a free representative government.>

< start="2982.67" dur="3.333">Gone, was liberty, equality, fraternity.>

< start="2987.108" dur="2.139">These were the French.>

< start="2989.247" dur="3.138">Although they listened, their minds and their hearts>

< start="2992.385" dur="2.087">were down on the Mediterranean where>

< start="2994.472" dur="3.965">the battle colors of the regiments were taken to Africa,>

< start="2998.437" dur="2.403">out of the Nazi grasp.>

< start="3000.84" dur="2.856">The people wept as their glory departed,>

< start="3003.696" dur="3.706">but they didn't know that France had a deal of hope>

< start="3007.402" dur="1.662">from a rallying point.>

< start="3009.064" dur="3.25">Charles de Gaulle, a soldier, did not surrender.>

< start="3012.314" dur="3.309">He vowed to continue to fight.>

< start="3015.623" dur="2.012">Gathering about him loyal Frenchmen from>

< start="3017.635" dur="3.065">all over the world, he organized what became>

< start="3020.7" dur="1.75">the Free French Army.>

< start="3024.638" dur="3.75">But for most of the world, France had fallen.>

< start="3031.618" dur="4.225">Nazi propagandists making full use of the new weapon,>

< start="3035.843" dur="3.794">the radio, immediately turned their propaganda machine>

< start="3039.637" dur="2.365">on the people of Britain.>

< start="3042.002" dur="1.319">- [Radio Announcer] The blitzkrieg>

< start="3043.321" dur="2.609">will be carried over the British islands>

< start="3045.93" dur="3.469">with greater, more appalling rapidity,>

< start="3049.399" dur="4.167">than over Poland, Norway, Holland, Belgium, or France.>

< start="3055.9" dur="3.686">- [Narrator] Only one state still stood against Germany.>

< start="3059.586" dur="3.5">Western Europe's offshore island, Britain.>

< start="3064.76" dur="4.58">And Britain had its Spitfires, flown by resolute>

< start="3069.34" dur="2">and skillful RAF pilots.>

< start="3072.357" dur="3.531">In combat against this nimble fighter over Dunkirk,>

< start="3075.888" dur="2.32">the German pilots found, for the first time,>

< start="3078.208" dur="2.892">that their own aircraft could be out-turned>

< start="3081.1" dur="2.605">and out-climbed and for the first time>

< start="3083.705" dur="3.884">they were forced to fly to the limits of their performance.>

< start="3087.589" dur="2.471">This was perhaps the first indication>

< start="3090.06" dur="3.256">that the Luftwaffe was not invincible.>

< start="3093.316" dur="2.75">(planes buzzing)>

< start="3153.373" dur="1.417">Losses were high.>

< start="3156.091" dur="2.321">With the fighters being engaged in dogfights,>

< start="3158.412" dur="2.271">the bombers were flying without support,>

< start="3160.683" dur="2.241">and suffered considerably as a consequence,>

< start="3162.924" dur="1.583">as did the Stuckas.>

< start="3166.597" dur="1.73">For the first time, the Luftwaffe had met>

< start="3168.327" dur="4.403">an opponent of equal fighting capabilities in the air.>

< start="3172.73" dur="4.167">And, as a consequence, prevented the Dunkirk evacuation.>

< start="3179.614" dur="2.563">Following the fall of France, the Luftwaffe>

< start="3182.177" dur="2.839">was withdrawn for a refit in expectation>

< start="3185.016" dur="2.928">of the next phase of the war in the west,>

< start="3187.944" dur="2.486">the invasion of the British Isles.>

< start="3190.43" dur="3.167">As yet, however, the Luftwaffe had only a foretaste>

< start="3193.597" dur="3.481">of effective and determined fighter opposition.>

< start="3197.078" dur="2.887">But basking in the realms of victory,>

< start="3199.965" dur="2.889">neither Goering, nor his senior commanders>

< start="3202.854" dur="3.019">had yet recognized its implications.>

< start="3205.873" dur="4.167">(cheering) (martial music)>

< start="3216.842" dur="3.758">For operation Sealion, the invasion of Britain,>

< start="3220.6" dur="3.967">the task of the Luftwaffe was twofold.>

< start="3224.567" dur="3.424">One, they were to eliminate the Royal Air Force>

< start="3227.991" dur="4.167">both as a fighting force and also as a ground organization.>

< start="3233.071" dur="3.766">And two, they were to strangle the supply of Great Britain>

< start="3236.837" dur="3.664">by destroying its ports and shipping.>

< start="3240.501" dur="3.083">This was Britain in her darkest hour.>

< start="3246.64" dur="3.932">- Of all the wars, that we have ever waged>

< start="3250.572" dur="3.393">in the long continuity of our history,>

< start="3253.965" dur="4">there has never been one which more truly united>

< start="3259.88" dur="2.888">the entire British nation and British race>

< start="3262.768" dur="4.167">throughout the world, than this present fearful struggle>

< start="3267.769" dur="3.599">for the freedom and progress of mankind.>

< start="3271.368" dur="2.241">(applauding)>

< start="3273.609" dur="2.392">We entered it of our own free will,>

< start="3276.001" dur="3.014">without being ourselves directly assaulted.>

< start="3279.015" dur="3.417">All over the world, friend and foe alike,>

< start="3283.774" dur="3.348">everyone who had not the eye of faith,>

< start="3287.122" dur="4.167">might well have deemed our speedy ruin was at hand.>

< start="3293.235" dur="3.648">Against the triumphant might of Hitler>

< start="3296.883" dur="4.167">with a greedy Italian at his tail (laughing),>

< start="3302.439" dur="1.25">we stood alone!>

< start="3304.841" dur="3.108">With resources so slender that one shudders>

< start="3307.949" dur="1.833">to enumerate them now.>

< start="3312.121" dur="2.75">(dramatic music)>

< start="3315.708" dur="4.167">We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be.>

< start="3321.858" dur="3.5">We shall fight on beaches, landing ground,>

< start="3326.775" dur="4.099">in fields, in streets, and on the hills.>

< start="3330.874" dur="2.167">We shall never surrender.>

< start="3342.107" dur="2.917">(orchestral music)>